Companhia das Lezí­rias

Montado Alluvial Mountains

Name Description

Bank tributary of the Tagus River, in the Ribatejo province, 30 km northeast Lisbon and 7 km from Vila Franca de Xira.

Size 17.952 ha
Ownership State-run property
Soil and topography

The entire watershed is on deep Miocene sands and the main soil types include regosols and podzols. Altitudes range from 1 m to 53 m, with slopes between 0% and 20%.


The bioclimate is in the transition between semi-arid and sub-humid. Mean average annual rainfall is 662 mm; mean annual temperature is 16.3ºC.

Montado type

Cork oak dominant, with an average of 68 adult trees per hectare.

Past history of use

Managed as an agro-silvo-pastoral system for more than one hundred years, is nowadays only a silvo-pastoral system where sheep were replaced by cows. The main economic output is cork. Cork is harvested every 9 years, with an average production of 986 kg per hectare. The average cattle stocking rate is 0.47 animal units per hectare.

Current use

Cork oak stands are the major use and the priority in terms of land management. It covers 6.751 ha (78% of forested land). Pine and eucalyptus stands (1.900 ha), agriculture areas, pastures and dams complete the current use of soil.

Main drivers of change

Some tree decline is observed, especially on podzols. The natural regeneration of the tree stand is not uniform, and it is lacking in some places because of grazing and shrub clearing for fire prevention. No fires have been reported in the last 20 years. Conflicting interests arise from the livestock grazing component that affects the natural regeneration of cork oak trees. Interventions and adjustments to promote natural regeneration and active afforestation (e.g. fencing combined with shrub clearing) have been included in the stakeholder´s management plan over the last 4 years.

Available datasets
  • Meteorological data since 2004.
  • Pine Wood stocks since 1992.
  • Cork oak and pine trees biometric data since 1992.
  • Mammals and birds distribution data since 2008.